Agriculture in Argentina
Updated March 27, 2019
Panorama of agriculture in Argentina
The agriculture in Argentina is one of the main economic activities that not only caters to the country, but that the surplus is exported.
Argentina has a continental area of about 2.8 million square kilometers and has around 34 million hectares of agricultural crops. The main crops are: soy, wheat, corn, sunflower, sorghum and rice. Production of vegetables and legumes occupies only 1.5% of that total, with 500,000 hectares.
Agricultural crop areas
According to the prevailing climate, the country is divided into mild, sub-tropical and arid regions. The different soils and climates in the country, offer a variety of agricultural products, adapted to the possibilities of each region.
Agriculture in Mild Climate Area:
It basically comprises the Pampa plain, where the following commodities are grown.
Argentina is one the first 10 wheat producers in the world. It is grown in the province of Buenos Aires and the croplands alternate with sunflower, potatoes and pasturing. In Córdoba, Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, wheat alternates with corn, soy and pasturing. Furthermore, you can find rice and pasturing crops such as alfalfa, oats, barley and rye.
The so-called “oil complex” is now the main exporting block and one of the pillars of the national economy.
The stars do shine Argentina oilseed production in the global context are: Sunflower and soy, which continuously improve their genetics, and result in increased production.
The main oilseed crop is soy, followed in importance by sunflower. They are also produced, although in very small proportion, safflower, canola and flax.
The main producing provinces are Cordoba, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, which together represent 84% of the national total.
Argentina is the world’s largest supplier of oil and soybean meal and the third largest supplier of corn.
In the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos there is the biggest potato output.
Citrus fruits, peaches and plums are favorite in Rosario and San Pedro areas. Tangerines, oranges and lemons stand out in Entre Ríos.
The 90 % of the floricultural surface is in the Pampa plain. Due to the high capital investment, the quantity of labor involved and the demand of production factors, the rate of this activity is intensive. It is also characterized by the small surface of the output units and by its high profitability.
Agriculture in Sub-tropical climate area:
In the Misiones plateau and in Corrientes are crops of yerba mate, tung-oil-tree, and tea. Tung-oil-tree comes from Asia and adapted very well to this region, being used for wood polishing. Over 80 per cent of the domestic cotton produce can be found in the Chaco plain. Fruits and vegetables are grown in Santiago del Estero.
In Valle de Lerma there are cereals, tobacco, sugar-cane, soy and cotton plantations. The Valles Calchaquíes stand out for their vineyards which produce exquisite wines, besides citrus and tropical fruits. Lemon output in Tucumán is regarded as one of the most important ones in the country.
Agriculture in Arid Climate Area:
This region presents climatic difficulties to cultivate the soil. Nevertheless, grapevines turn La Rioja into the third domestic producer. In Cuyo, the vineyards account for most of the crop area.
This is an abridged version of the report on economic activities.
The full version is available only in Spanish: Agricultura Argentina
- Asociación Argentina Pro Trigo: Cultivated area and production of wheat from 1995
- INTA: Maps with areas of crops of corn, wheat, sorghum, soybean, sunflower.
- SIIA: Sistema Integrado de Información Agropecuaria. Estadísticas de la Dirección de Información Agropecuaria y Forestal, Subsecretaría de Agricultura. Agricultural Statistics.
- Fernando Bertello (28/04/2014) Sharp drop in the countryside in 10 years. Diario La Nación.
- MECON: Secretaría de Política Económica. Subsecretaría de Programación Económica. Dirección Nacional de Programación Económica Regional Citrus complex .
- INET: Instituto Nacional De Educación Tecnológica. Horticulture in Argentina Final Report.
- MINCYT: Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva. Sobre el perfil sectorial de la producción de Frutas Cítricas: Weaknesses and technological challenges of the Productive Sector Citrus Fruits in Corrientes, Entre Ríos and Tucumán.
- EEAOC: Reporte Agroindustrial Relevamiento satelital de cultivos en la provincia de Tucumán. Harvested Area and Production of Sugarcane and Sugar for 2014 in Tucuman Zafra
- Argentina, the world’s leading exporter of pears. Suplemento Supercampo. Diario Perfil
- Víctor Rau. (2008) Yerba Mate in Misiones (Argentina). Structure and meaning of a production. IV Congreso Internacional de la Red SIAL. Mar del Plata. Argentina.
- MECON: Top Tabacos
- MINAGRI: Characterization of the Tobacco Producer Sector in Argentina. UCA: Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Centro de Altos Estudios Jorge Gándara.