Agriculture in Argentina: Crops, Productive areas


Agriculture in Argentina is one of the main economic activities that not only caters to the country but that the surplus is exported. Argentina has a continental area of about 2.8 million square kilometers and has around 37,5 million hectares of agricultural crops. The main crops that occupy this area are soybeans, wheat, corn, sunflower, sorghum, and barley.

Importance of Agriculture in Argentina

What are the main crops in Argentina?

The 6 main crops are Soy, Corn, Wheat, Sunflower, Barley, and Sorghum. In 2022-2023 the total estimated production of these crops is 76,8 MTn


What is the crop production area in Argentina?

Argentina has 37,411,993 productive ha (2018 last Census), of which 14,391,625 ha correspond to the cultivation of oilseeds (38.5%), 11,387,352 ha are used for cereal production (30.4%), and 7,938,960 ha to forage crops (21.2%).

What are the agricultural products that are most exported from Argentina?

1st world exporter of soybean flour and oil, peanut oil and manufacture, lemon juice, essential oil, organic fresh fruit to the EU, and yerba mate.
2nd world exporter of fresh lemons, and must.
3rd world exporter of corn, garlic, oils and fats, flour, and sunflower oil.

What is the position of Argentina’s agricultural production in the world?

2nd world producer of yerba mate
3rd world producer of soybeans and soybean meal
4th world producer of corn, lemon, soybean oil, and biodiesel based on soybean oil, seed, and sunflower oil.

What are the main agricultural-producing provinces of Argentina?

Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Santa Fe: they concentrate 75.84% of the surface destined for the production of oilseeds, and they add up to 72.7% of the implanted area that corresponds to cereals.
Mendoza, Tucumán, and San Juan: the three provinces, in decreasing order, add up to 58% of the fruit-planted area.
Salta, Córdoba, and Santiago del Estero: stand out in the cultivation of legumes, in decreasing order. The three main legume-producing provinces concentrate 77% of legume production:

How are agricultural crops distributed in the Argentine territory by climate areas?

The agricultural activity takes place in three zones: temperate, subtropical, and arid; which are differentiated by their climatic conditions and their aptitude for agriculture. The different soils and climates of the country offer a diversity of agricultural productions, adapted to the possibilities of each region.


Argentina Agriculture Facts

Completing the information of the agricultural panorama of Argentina farming 2022-2023 the main crops with the production data in millions of tons and the planted areas in millions of hectares below

Main Crops Production and Area 2022/2023

Cultivo de soja


16,0 MHa
21,5 MTn

Cultivo de maíz


7,9 MHa
32,0 MTn

cultivo de trigo


6,9 MHa
11,5 MTn

Cultivo de girasol


1,9 MHa
3,9 MTn

Cultivo de cebada


1,3 MHa
4,6 MTn

Cultivo de Sorgo


0,95 MHa
3,3 MTn

Fuente: Mercado de Granos 2022 BCR

Fuente: Bolsa de Comercio de Rosario

A full report of Argentina’s Agriculture in Spanish >>

Argentina Agricultural Crop by Climate Areas

Main crops, production areas distributed in the Argentine territory by climate, and agricultural-producing provinces are important facts in Argentina’s agriculture.

Map of Argentina crops by climatic zone

Below we present on the map the information on the geographical distribution of agricultural production according to the climatic zone: temperate, subtropical, and arid zones. The infographic also indicates the different geographical regions of the country, which favor the agricultural production of different crops.

Argentina Agricultural crop by climate areas.
Crops by climatic zone

According to the prevailing climate, the country is divided into mild, sub-tropical, and arid regions. The different soils and climates in the country, offer a variety of agricultural products, adapted to the possibilities of each region.

Read more about Argentina’s Climate Types >>

1- Argentina Agriculture in Mild Climate Area

Argentina agriculture cultivated field in mild climate area.
The cultivated field in the mild climate area

The temperate zone is formed by the southern part of the Platense Plain or Pampean Plain. Its plain relief, the fertility of its soil, its surface, and its mild climate makes this region one of the best in the world for agricultural activity.

Cereals such as wheat with extraordinary yields are grown in the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires; and vegetables, among which the Balcarce potato stands out, also in the province of Buenos Aires. Fruits such as citrus, peaches, and plums are the favorites in the Rosario and San Pedro areas of Santa Fe province. Meanwhile, in Entre Ríos, mandarins, oranges, and lemons stand out. 50% of the total Argentine flower production is concentrated in the province of Buenos Aires.

2- Argentina Agriculture in Sub-tropical climate area

Argentina Agriculture field in Sub-tropical climate area
Crop field in field in Argentina Sub-tropical climate area

The subtropical zone is divided into eastern, central, and western.

  • Crops in the eastern subtropical zone: Located in the northeast of Argentina, are the Misiones plateau and the province of Corrientes where yerba mate, tung, and tea are harvested. Tung is an oilseed native to Asia that has adapted very well to this region and is used for polishing wood.
  • Crops in the central subtropical zone: It is located in the center and north of Argentina, it is integrated by the Chaco plain. There, more than 80% of the national cotton production is harvested; as well as in Santiago del Estero, where fruits and vegetables are also grown.
  • Crops in the western subtropical zone: Located northwest of the Argentine territory. In this region, in the area of the Lerma Valley, cereals, tobacco, sugar cane, soybeans, and cotton are collected. On the other hand, in the Calchaquíes valleys, they stand out for their vines that produce exquisite wines, as well as citrus and tropical fruits. Finally, we have the production of lemons in Tucumán, which is considered one of the most important in the country.

3- Argentina Agriculture in Arid Climate Area

Crops in Mendoza with the Andes Mountains in the background
Crop fields Mendoza farming

The arid zone occupies 75% of the territory of Argentina. Agricultural activity in this area, given the scarcity of rainfall, takes place where it is possible to use the water from the rivers for irrigation.

This is the case of the Cuenca del Desaguadero in Cuyo, where the vine for the production of wines and table grapes occupies most of the cultivated area in Mendoza, San Juan, and La Rioja.

In extra-Andean Patagonia, the Alto Valle del Río Negro stands out, dedicated to agricultural activity with the cultivation of apples and pears and their agro-industrial application.

This is an abridged version of the report on economic activities.
The full version is available only in Spanish: Agricultura Argentina