Biogeographical Regions in Argentina
Article of the guest columnist, Esteban O. Lavilla y Juan A. González for surdelsur.com
The Biogeographical Regions in Argentina report is an approach to the flora and fauna of the two main regions, Neotropical and Antarctic, which define the characteristics of the surface of our country.
All vegetable and animal species are shown along this journey into Argentine nature.
Biogeographical Regions in the World
This two biogeographical regions, Neotropical and Antarctic, are present in America, New Zealand and the Antarctic Continent.
Neotropical Region in America
It corresponds almost exactly with what is known as “Latin America”, spreading from the Sonora Desert, in the frontier between USA and Mexico, up to the southern limit of continental South America. A narrow band at both sides of Argentina and Chile southern Andes, as well as Isla Grande in Tierra del Fuego and the remaining southern islands are not encompassed by it.
The large continental mass of South Americ kept separate from the remaining continents for several million years, which brought about the peculiar isolated development of the biota which caracterizes it.
According to various differentiating features, the Neotropical Region has been divided into five Domains (Caribbean, Guyanese, Amazonian, Chaco and Patagonian-Andean), the three last ones being within the Argentine territory.
Antarctica Region in the World
It includes the southern end of South America, New Zealand and Antarctica. These three masses of land used to be linked, corresponding to the southern part of the Gondwana supercontinent. Despite the distances which today separate one from the other, the three members of the regions have flora and fauna affinities.
Argentine Biogeographical Regions:
Argentine Neotropical Region
The Neotropical region occupies most of our territory. Only a narrow strip on either side of the Andes in southern Argentina and Chile, as well as the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and the other southern islands are not included in it.
Of the five domains that the Neotropical Region occupies in America three are present in the Argentine territory. Domains of the Neotropical Region in Argentina are:
- Yungas Province
- Parana Province
- Pre-Puna Province
- Chaco Province
- Woodland Province
- Espinal Province
- Pampa Province
- Puna Province
- High-Andean Province
- Patagonian Province
Widely spread in South America, it has been divided into nine provinces. In Argentina it is marginally represented only in the North-west, along the pre-cordilleran mountains (corresponding to the Yunga Province) and in the North-east, covering Misiones and the North-east of Corrientes (Paraná Province).
The Yunga Province occupies Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán y Catamarca Provinces
The Parana Province occupies Misiones y northeast of Corrientes Province
Se corresponde, a grandes rasgos, con las tierras bajas de América del Sur.
Ha sido dividido en seis provincias, cinco de las cuales están representadas en Argentina, donde ocupan la mayor parte del país.
It approximately coincides with the South American low lands.
It has been divided into six provinces, five of which are represented in Argentina, where they encompass most of the country.
The Pre-Puna Province occupies Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca and La Rioja Provinces.
The Chaco Province comprises Formosa, Chaco, east of Salta, Jujuy, Tucumán and Catamarca, west of Corrientes, north of Córdoba and Santa Fe, with intrusions in La Rioja and San Luis.
The Woodland Province makes a wide curve, ranging from Yocavil Valley in Salta and Tucumán, following Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza, Neuquén, La Pampa, Chubut and Río Negro.
The Espinal Province forms an arc from the center of Corrientes and North of Entre Rios by Santa Fe, Cordoba, San Luis, La Pampa and Buenos Aires.
The Pampa Province comprises Buenos Aires, south of Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Córdoba, east of La Pampa and a small portion of San Luis. It is located between the Espinal Province and the Atlantic Ocean.
It occupies the regions of middle and high mountain of the north and west of South America, from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego, and goes down to encompass the Patagonian steppe, from the west of Neuquén and Río Negro to Santa Cruz.
It has been divided into five Provinces, three of which are represented in Argentina.
The Puna Province occupies the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza.
The High-Andean Province takes the high mountains of western Argentina, from Jujuy to Tierra del Fuego.
The Patagonian province in your northern boundary can be assimilated to an oblique line from the foothills in the center of Mendoza to the mouth of the Chubut River in the Atlantic. South reaches northeast of Tierra del Fuego, in the east limits with the Atlantic Ocean and by the west with the provinces Altoandina to the center of Neuquen; and the sub-Antarctic to Tierra del Fuego.
Argentine Antarctic Region
Se encuentra en Argentina en el extremo sur, incluyendo las islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur e islas subatlánticas menores.
It is in the southern end of Argentina and includes the Malvinas Islands, Southern Georgias Islands and other minor Sub-Antarctic islands.
The Argentine Antarctica Region is composed of two sub-domains, the Sub-Antarctic Domain and the Antarctic Domain.
It is located on a narrow strip to the west of Patagonia and parallel to the border between Argentina and Chile.
The Sub-Antartic Province, took the aforementioned brief and longitudinal portion, between Neuquén and Tierra del Fuego, to the west of Argentina.
The Insular Province is the portion of Antarctic Domain, including the Falklands, South Georgia and minor sub-Antarctic islands.
The Antarctic Province encompasses the southern islands and the Antarctica. The domain is usually considered to be coincident with the limits of a Province.